Anandamohan Bose (23 September 1847 – 20 August 1906) was one of the most important Indian social thinkers and political leaders during the British Raj. He co-founded the Indian National Association, one of the earliest Indian political organizations, and later became a senior leader of the Indian National Congress. In 1847, he became the first Indian Wrangler (a student who has completed the third year of the Mathematical Tripos with first-class honours) of the
. Simultaneously he was called
to the Bar in 1874. He was also a prominent religious leader of the Brahmo
movement and – with Sivanath Sastri – a leading light of the Adi Dharm. Cambridge University
Anandamohan was born at Jaysiddhi village in Mymensingh district of the undivided Bengal province in British India (in Itna Upazila of Kishoreganj district of present day
His father was Padmalochan Bose and his mother was Umakishori Devi. He
completed his school education from the Mymensingh Zilla school and stood ninth
in the Entrance Examination. He passed the F.A. and B.A. examinations from the Presidency College,
secured first position in both the examinations. In 1870, he received the
Premchand Roychand studentship, and went to England for higher education.
Anandamohan was an ardent supporter of the Brahmo movement from his student days. He was officially converted to Brahmo religion along with his wife Swarnaprabha Devi (sister of Jagadish Chandra Bose) by Keshab Chandra Sen in 1869. Later in 1878, when there was a rift in the Brahmo Samaj on several issues, the young members of Bharatborshiyo Brahmo Samaj differed with Keshab Chandra Sen regarding matters of child marriage, administration of the organization and various other matters. Anandamohan led the dissident group. As a result – on 15 May 1878 – he, along with Sivanath Sastri, Umesh Chandra Datta and others founded Sadharan Brahmo Samaj. The adjective ‘Sadharan’ was important, since it signified that it was an organization where all the members will enjoy the equal democratic rights. Anandamohan was elected the first president of the Sadharan Brahmo Samaj. He is credited to have built a democratic structure advancing its movement.
Anandamohan made several significant contributions as a social reformer and educator. He called upon all to chalk out social programme to eradicate illiteracy from the society. In 1876 he established the Banga Mahila Vidyalaya in
Calcutta the aim of which was the promotion
of female education. Later he amalgamated this Vidyalaya with the in order to achieve better
results in the field of female education. In 1879, he founded Bethune School City College
in Calcutta in
keeping with his movement for spread of higher education among the Indians. His
bright academic career and deep interest in education convinced the British
government to appoint him as a member of the Indian Education Commission
(HUNTER COMISSION) of 1882.
Anandamohan founded the Students’ Association with an objective of promoting the spirit of nationalism among the students and along with Surendranath Banerjee and Sivanath Sastri organized regular lectures. It was he who for the first time felt that – under the colonial setting –students constituted the most conscious section of the community and so they must play a constructive role in social and political developments of the country. Therefore he established the Calcutta Students Association in 1875 and himself became the first president.
Like all patriotic souls in
On the political plane, Bose made another pioneering contribution by setting up a political association called the Indian Association in 1876. Its objective was to organize constitutional agitations against the colonial regime. The Indian Association convened a national conference in 1883. It may be described as the precursor of the Indian National Congress of which Anandamohan was one of the founding leaders. He was also elected as the president of the Congress at its
Madras (now Chennai)
Session of 1898.
Anandamohan Bose was successively nominated as a member of the Bengal Legislative Council, a member of the Calcutta University Senate and a Fellow of the University. It was due to his persistent and sincere efforts that the Calcutta University Act of Incorporation was amended in order to convert it from merely an examining body to and examining and teaching institution. Under the India Act 1892 theAs a patriot, as a scholar, as a political organizer and as an educationist, Anandamohan Bose has a few peers in the history of
also secured the power to
elect a member to the Bengal Legislative Council. Calcutta University
- By Dr. Sandipan Sen (Associate Professor of English,
) Ananda Mohan
- Published in The Indian Messenger , June 2012 Issue